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Egypt has far-reaching legislation on terrorism that is used also to suppress domestic opposition to the regime. The death penalty is imposable for terrorist offences. 

Compliance with International Law:
Last updated: one year ago

The Definition of Terrorism in Domestic Law

Egypt defines terrorism in very broad terms in its domestic law. Law 95 of 2015 for Confronting Terrorism largely maintains the definition in the penal code according to which a terrorist act encompasses any "use of force or violence or threat or terrorizing" that aims, among other things, to:

Disrupt general order or endanger the safety, interests or security of society; harm individual liberties or rights; harm national unity, peace, security, the environment or buildings or property; prevent or hinder public authorities, judicial bodies, government facilities, and others from carrying out all or part of their work and activity.Art. 2, Law 95 of 2015 for Confronting Terrorism.

The law was further reinforced in 2020. 

Adherence to Global and Regional Terrorism Treaties

Egypt is a State Party to most of the main United Nations treaties on terrorism.


Adherence to Global Regional Treaties
Treaty Adherence
1973 Convention on Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons State Party
1979 Hostage-Taking Convention State Party
1997 Terrorist Bombings Convention State Party
1999 Terrorist Financing Convention State Party
2005 Nuclear Terrorism Convention Signatory

In adhering to the 1999 Terrorist Financing Convention, Egypt declared that it "does not consider acts of national resistance in all its forms, including armed resistance against foreign occupation and aggression with a view to liberation and self-determination, as terrorist acts".


Egypt is also a State Party to some of the main regional treaties on terrorism.


Adherence to Regional Terrorism Treaties
Treaty Adherence
1999 Algiers Convention State Party
2004 Protocol to the Algiers Convention State not party
1998 Arab Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism State Party
1999 OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism Status unknown

The 1998 Arab Convention has one of the broadest definitions of terrorism:

Any act or threat of violence, whatever its motives or purposes, that occurs in the advancement of an individual or collective criminal agenda and seeking to sow panic among people, causing fear by harming them, or placing their lives, liberty or security in danger, or seeking to cause damage to the environment or to public or private installations or property or to occupying or seizing them, or seeking to jeopardize national resources.Art. 2, 1998 Arab Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism.

Laws and Penalties for Terrorist Offences

Egypt retains the death penalty for terrorist offences.

As the United Nations Special Rapporteur on human rights and counter terrorism, Fionnuala D. Ní Aoláin, observed in relation to changes in 2020:

Legislative changes covering anti-terrorism, protests, association, and NGOs include extending the definition of “terrorist entity” and applying new measures against individuals, businesses, media outlets, and trade unions and provide for life sentences and capital punishment for funding terrorism. For example, trade unions could have assets seized and be added to the terrorism list.

Counterterrorism Capacities and Policies at Domestic Level

Egypt continues to suffer widespread threats from terrorism, including from an Islamic State affiliate.

Counterterrorism operations are mounted by both the police and the army, but have a disproportionate impact on civilians that are not involved in terrorism.


Law 95 of 2015 for Confronting Terrorism (unofficial English translation)

Constitution of Egypt (English translation)