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Iceland has dedicated counterterrorism provisions in its Criminal Code. These concern serious predicate offences committed for a political purpose or to spread fear among the civilian population.

Compliance with International Law:
Last updated: one year ago

The Definition of Terrorism in Domestic Law

Iceland defines and criminalizes terrorism in its Criminal Code as predicate offences committed

with the intention of causing the public serious fear or unlawfully compelling the Icelandic or foreign authorities, or international institutions, to take action or refrain from taking action with a view to weakening or damaging the constitutional structure or the political, economic or social basis of the State or international institution.Art. 100(a), Criminal Code of Iceland.

The offences include homicide; assault; unlawful deprivation of liberty; disturbing traffic safety or causing large-scale damage to property when committed in such a way as to endanger human life or cause great financial loss; hijacking of an aircraft or attacking international airport passengers; arson or causing an explosion; and introducing toxic or other hazardous substances into objects intended for sale.Art. 100(a), Criminal Code of Iceland.

Adherence to Global and Regional Terrorism Treaties


Iceland is a State Party to most of the main United Nations treaties on terrorism.


Adherence to Global Terrorism Treaties
Treaty Adherence
1973 Convention on Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons State Party
1979 Hostage-Taking Convention State Party
1997 Terrorist Bombings Convention State Party
1999 Terrorist Financing Convention State Party
2005 Nuclear Terrorism Convention Signatory


Iceland is also a State Party to the main regional treaties on terrorism.


Adherence to Regional Terrorism Treaties
Treaty Adherence
1977 European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism State Party
2003 Protocol amending the European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism State Party
2005 Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism State Party
2015 Additional Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism State Party

Laws and Penalties for Terrorist Offences

Under Article 100(a) of the Criminal Code of Iceland, the offence of terrorism is subject to a penalty of up to life imprisonment. Assisting or supporting terrorism is subject to a term of imprisonment of up to ten years.Art. 100(b), Criminal Code of Iceland.Public encouragement of terrorism is punishable by up to six years in prison.Art. 100(c), Criminal Code of Iceland.

Counterterrorism Capacities and Policies at Domestic Level

Iceland does not have a formal military force but has a dedicated tactical unit in its national police, commonly known as the Viking Squad, one of whose roles is counterterrorism (Sérsveit ríkislögreglustjóra).


Penal Code of Iceland (English version)