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Lebanon has counterterrorism provisions in its Criminal Code, which have also been used to prosecute the violent actions of protesters during assemblies.

Compliance with International Law:
Last updated: one year ago

The Definition of Terrorism in Domestic Law

The Criminal Code defines terrorist acts as 

all acts intended to cause a state of terror and committed by means liable to create a public danger such as explosive devices, inflammable materials, toxic or corrosive products and infectious or microbial agents.Art. 314, Criminal Code of Lebanon. 

Adherence to Global and Regional Terrorism Treaties


Lebanon is a State Party to the main United Nations treaties on terrorism.


Adherence to Global Terrorism Treaties
Treaty Adherence
1973 Convention on Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons State Party
1979 Hostage-Taking Convention State Party
1997 Terrorist Bombings Convention State not party
1999 Terrorist Financing Convention State Party
2005 Nuclear Terrorism Convention State Party

In adhering to the 1979 Convention, Lebanon declared that:

The provisions of the Convention, and in particular those of its article 13, shall not affect the Lebanese Republic's stance of supporting the right of States and peoples to oppose and resist foreign occupation of their territories.


Lebanon is also a State Party to the main regional treaties on terrorism.


Adherence to Regional Terrorism Treaties
Treaty Adherence
1998 Arab Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism State Party
1999 OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism State Party

Laws and Penalties for Terrorist Offences

Several articles of Lebanon’s criminal code are effectively used to prosecute acts of terrorism. Any terrorist act shall carry a penalty of hard labour for at least five years. It shall carry a penalty of hard labour for life if it results in even partial destruction of a public building, industrial establishment, vessel or other facility or in impediments to means of telecommunications, communications and transport.Art. 315, Criminal Code of Lebanon.

The maximum penalty for terrorist offences under Lebanese law is the death penalty. Article 315 of the Criminal Code thus stipulates that: "The death penalty shall be imposed if the act leads to the death of a person or to the complete or partial destruction of a building in which one or more persons are present." 

Any person who finances or contributes to the financing, intentionally, by any direct or indirect means, of terrorism or terrorist organisations is punished by fixed-term hard labour of between three and seven years.Art. 316 bis, Criminal Code of Lebanon.

In March 2021, Amnesty International called on the Lebanese authorities to "immediately stop the use of terrorism-related charges to prosecute protesters, which marks a worrying new turn in the ongoing repression of activists and demonstrators". The organization repeated earlier calls on the authorities to "immediately cease the practice of summoning civilians before military courts". On 19 February, Lebanon’s military prosecutor filed terrorism-related charges against at least 23 detainees, including two minors, involved in heated protests in the northern city of Tripoli, during which both Internal Security Forces (ISF) officers and civilians were injured and one civilian killed. If convicted, these protesters could face the death penalty.

Counterterrorism Capacities and Policies at Domestic Level

The Lebanese Armed Forces, the Internal Security Forces, the Directorate of General Security (DGS), and the General Directorate of State Security are the primary government agencies responsible for counterterrorism.

Lebanon published its national strategy for preventing violent extremism (PVE) in 2018.  


Criminal Code of Lebanon (English translation of selected provisions)