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Liberia has dedicated counterterrorism legislation in its Criminal Code, the result of a 2017 amendment law. There is a limited carve-out for the exercise of certain fundamental rights.

Compliance with International Law:
Last updated: one year ago

The Definition of Terrorism in Domestic Law

The 2017 amendment to the Criminal Code defined a terrorist act as follows:

any act or threat of action or omission, within the meaning of Counter Terrorism Convention, whether committed inside or outside of Liberia which:

(a)    causes death, endangers life or involves serious bodily harm to a person;

(b)    involves serious damage to property;

(c)    creates a serious risk to the health or safety of the public or a section of the public;

(d)    involves the use of firearms or explosives; which involves releasing into the environment or any part thereof or distributing or exposing the public or any part thereof to (i) any dangerous, hazardous, radioactive or harmful substance; (ii) any toxic chemical; (iii) any microbial or other biological agent or toxin;

(e)    is designed or intended to disrupt any computer system or the provision of services directly related to communications infrastructure, banking or financial services, utilities, transportation or other essential infrastructure;

(f)    is designed or intended to disrupt the provision of essential emergency services such as police, civil defense or medical services;

(g)    involves prejudice to national security or public safety;

And which act, threat of action or omission is intended, or by its nature and context, may reasonably be regarded as being intended to (i) intimidate the public or a section of the public; or (ii) compels the Government, any international organization, or any other individual or group, to do or refrain from doing, any act,

and (iii) is made for the purpose of advancing a political, ideological, or religious cause.Art. 5(6), 2017 Amendment of the Liberian Criminal Code.

An act done for those reasons and which disrupts any service or services, and/or 

is committed in pursuance of a protest, demonstration or stoppage of work, shall not be deemed to be a terrorist act within the meaning of this definition, in so far as such act, threat of action or omission is not intended to result in any harm referred to in paragraphs, (a) to (e).Art. 5(6), 2017 Amendment of the Liberian Criminal Code.

Adherence to Global and Regional Terrorism Treaties


Liberia is a State Party to most of the main United Nations treaties on terrorism.


Adherence to Global Terrorism Treaties
Treaty Adherence
1973 Convention on Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons State Party
1979 Hostage-Taking Convention State Party
1997 Terrorist Bombings Convention State Party
1999 Terrorist Financing Convention State Party
2005 Nuclear Terrorism Convention Signatory


Liberia is also a State Party to the main regional treaties on terrorism.


Adherence to Regional Terrorism Treaties
Treaty Adherence
1999 Algiers Convention State Party
2004 Protocol to the Algiers Convention State Party

Laws and Penalties for Terrorist Offences

Terrorist offences are punishable in accordance with the Criminal Code. Until 2022, when the Liberian Parliament moved to abolish it, the death penalty was the maximum penalty provided by law. When abolition is achieved, life imprisonment will become the maximum sentence for terrorist offences.

There is no statute of limitations for grave terrorist offences.

Counterterrorism Capacities and Policies at Domestic Level

The Liberian National Police (LNP) is the frontline force of internal security, including in the fight against terrorism. Liberia does not have a dedicated counterterrorism police unit. 

A 2017 amendment to the Code of Criminal Procedure expanded the powers of arrest of terrorist suspects.


2017 Amendment of the Liberian Criminal Code

1978 Penal Law of Liberia

Liberia Criminal Procedure for Terrorism (2017 amendment)